Status of Women Canada Ministerial Transition Book
Women and Girls in Canada

October 2015

Outline of Presentation

Overview

Women are fulfilling an integral role in the country’s success however, persistent challenges remain

The call to action has been issued on many fronts

Angel Gurria

“We aspire to a society where men and women enjoy the same opportunities… we cannot break gender stereotypes if gender equality is only pushed by women, for women, without engaging men.”

Angel Gurria, Secretary General, OECD, 2015
Kathleen Wynne

“I'm challenging everyone in this province to step up and help end sexual violence...If we just talk about what’s comfortable, we’re not going to change anything.“

Kathleen Wynne, Premier of Ontario, 2015
Hillary Clinton

“The economic success of countries and companies can be tied to the opportunities available for women... There is work to be done by both governments and individuals.”

Hillary Clinton, Former U.S. Secretary of State, 2014
Christine Lagarde

“In too many countries, too many legal restrictions conspire against women to be economically active. In a world in search of growth, women will help find it, if they face a level playing field instead of an insidious conspiracy.”

Christine Lagarde, Managing Director, IMF, 2015

Context: The Canadian Picture

Medium term economic prospects are uncertain, and key socio-demographic shifts will continue

Education and Skills Training

Women have expanded their skills and competencies to achieve employment and financial gains…

…however, gaps remain for women’s participation in many in-demand sectors

Employment and Economic Prosperity

Women have reached near parity to men in labour market participation…

… however, women are underpaid relative to their male counterparts, with Canada falling below the OECD average for the gender wage gap

Leadership and Democratic Participation

More women are taking their place around the board table, within executive ranks and in the political sphere…

… however, until workplace culture and societal attitudes change, progress will be slow

Violence and Harassment

Despite gains across every domain of women’s lives in Canada, gender-based violence and harassment remain pervasive…

…raising questions about how best to make violence socially unacceptable in Canadian society

Marginalized Women Face Additional Challenges

While the story of Canadian women is overall positive, key variables place some groups of women on a different trajectory…

Northern and Rural Women

Immigrant Women

Women with Disabilities

Aboriginal Women

…resulting in unequal outcomes for marginalized women

Canada’s Standing Internationally

According to the World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report (2014), Canada ranks 19th of 142 countries for gender equality...

However, Canada is falling behind on key indicators:

Canada’s Commitment to Gender Equality

Canada’s commitment to gender equality is longstanding and firmly entrenched…

International Commitments

Legislative Protections

Policies and Guidelines

…but more could be done

If current trends continue...

If governments take no action, letting Canadian society and the market set the course in the coming years…

Employment

Leadership

Violence

…these significant challenges will limit Canada’s social and economic potential

If Governments Act as a Catalyst

While the scope, type and pace of investments could vary…

…investing in key issues that affect women and girls will bolster the economy and improve the lives of all Canadians

International Best Practices

Lever Examples
Legislative Measures
  • Legislative quotas for women in senior management and board level (Norway, UK)
  • Legislative requirements regarding the representation of girls in the media (France)
  • Legislative quotas to bring women into the federal supply chain (US)
  • National pay equity legislation (US Lilly Led better Fair Pay Act)
Tax Incentives
  • Tax cuts for small businesses (targeting women-owned) (US)
  • Tax incentives for companies using women-owned businesses as suppliers (US)
Grants and Loans
  • Targeted grants for women to increase participation in STEM similar to former Canada Study Grants for Women in Medicine (US National Science Foundation grants)
  • Targeted loan support for women in in-demand professions where they are underrepresented (US)
  • Suite of federal grants for single parents (housing, education, transportation, etc) (US)
Policies
  • “Daddy quota“ reserves part of the parental leave period exclusively for the other parent: if they do not take allotted period of leave, the family loses it. (Norway, Sweden, Iceland)
  • Creating opportunities for women-owned businesses in the federal supply chain (US)
  • Facilitation of work re-entry post-maternity leave using existing paid leave provisions (Belgium)
  • Use of gender budgeting to promote equitable opportunities for women (Austria)
  • Federally sponsored training and supports for women owned business (US Small Business Administration)
  • Comprehensive, mutisectoral national action plans to address violence against women (US, Australia, UK)
  • National childcare strategy (Throughout the EU)
Social Marketing
  • Leveraging conventional and social media to promote a national discourse on forms of violence against women (United Kingdom, Australia, US are recent examples)
  • Promoting civic education and public leadership for women and girls (US)

Annexes

Education and Skills Training

Employment and Economic Prosperity

Leadership and Democratic Participation

Violence and Harassment

Education and Skills Training: Women and PSE Attainment

Completion of post-secondary education, by age and gender, 2012
(percent)

Completion of post-secondary education, by age and gender, 2012 (percent)

Source: HRSDC calculations based on Statistics Canada. Table 282-0004 -Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by educational attainment, sex and age group, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), CANSIM (database).

[Text version of the graphic Completion of post-secondary education, by age and gender, 2012 (percent) ]
Completion of post-secondary education, by age and gender, 2012 (percent)
Men Women
25-44 years 65.1 73.2
65+ years 45.9 35.4

Education and Skills Training: Women in STEM

Women accounted for 59% of graduates who had a university degree in science and technology, but accounted for 23% of graduates aged 25 to 34 with a university degree in engineering, and 30% of those with a degree in mathematics and computer science.

Thus, 39% of the 132,500 women aged 25 to 34 who had a STEM degree had a background in engineering, mathematics or computer science.

Number of STEM university graduates aged 25 to 34, by sex, 2011

Number of STEM university graduates aged 25 to 34, by sex, 2011

Note: STEM includes science, technology, engineering, mathematics and computer science.
Source: Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

[Text version of the graphic Number of STEM university graduates aged 25 to 34, by sex, 2011]

The image is a bar graph. It displays two bars—the one on the left is for women and the one on the right is for men. Each bar contains three colours. Bright blue represents science and and technology, light blue represents engineering and red represents mathematics and computer science.

The bar representing women shows that fewer than 150,000 STEM graduates in 2011 were women (approximate). Of these, the majority graduated from science and technology. A much smaller number graduated from engineering and fewer still graduated from mathematics and computer science.

The bar representing men shows that just over 200,000 men graduated from the STEM disciplines in 2011 (approximate). Of these, the majority graduated from engineering, with fewer graduating from science and technology and fewer still graduating from mathematics and computer science.

Education and Skills Training: Women in the Trades

Health, engineering and computing are the fields that tend to be most affected by skills pressures. These professions also have high rates of gender polarization.

Evidence suggests that career aspirations and expectations associated with future careers are formed at a relatively young age and differ dramatically by gender.

This trend exists across all OECD countries.

% of 15-year-olds planning a career in health services, engineering or computing

% of 15-year-olds planning a career in health services, engineering or computing

Sources: OECD Education at a Glance, 2012

[Text version of the graphic % of 15-year-olds planning a career in health services, engineering or computing]
% of 15-year-olds planning a career in health services, engineering or computing
Girls Boys
Health services 25.8 11.6
Engineering or computing 3.2 18.8

Employment and Economic Prosperity: Wage Gap by Skill Type

When it comes to the salary gap between the sexes, women have hit a brick wall.

Women between the ages of 45 and 54 earn on average about $23,600 less than men in that same cohort, which is virtually unchanged from where it was five years ago, although the gap is narrower than in 2000.

The gender wage gap is more pronounced in certain sectors, as outlined below.

Skill types** Men Women Ratio (W/M)
Hourly rate in current dollars
Health occupations $28.6 $27.6 0.97
Arts, culture, recreation and sport $27.1 $25.4 0.94
Natural and applied sciences and related occupations $34.5 $30.7 0.89
Social science, education, government services and religion $33.2 $29.6 0.89
Management occupations $39.6 $34.5 0.87
Business, finance and administrative occupations $26.1 $22.3 0.85
Trades, transport and equipment operators $24.8 $19.5 0.79
Sales and services $21.1 $15.9 0.75
Processing, manufacturing and utilities $22.1 $16.2 0.73
Occupations unique to primary industries $24.8 $16.4 0.66

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey* Workers aged 25–54

Employment and Economic Prosperity: OECD Wage and Labour Force Participation Data

With a gender gap difference of 7.3% between male and female labour force participation rates, Canada has the lowest gender difference in participation rate (age 15–64) among G20 countries.

With a gender wage gap of 19.2%, Canada ranks 10th out of 15 G20-countries for which comparable data is available.

Employment and Economic Prosperity: OECD Wage and Labour Force Participation Data

Source: G20 labour markets: outlook, key challenges and policy responses, ILO, OECD, World Bank, 2014

[Text version of the graphic Labour Market Participation Gender Gap - OECD Countries

The image is a bar graph illustrating the gap in labour market participation between men and women in the following countries, in order of smallest gap to largest gap: Canada (less than approx. 10%), France, Germany, Russian Federation, Spain, United Kingdom, United States, Australia, European Union, South Africa, China, Japan, Italy, Republic of Korea, Brazil, Argentina, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey, India and Saudi Arabia (nearly 60%).

[Text version of the graphic Gender Wage Gap - OECD Countries

The image is a bar graph illustrating the wage gap between men and women in OECD countries. They are listed from smallest gap to largest in the following order: Spain (just under 10%), Italy, European Union, Germany, Australia, France, Mexico, Indonesia, United Kingdom, Canada (just under 20%), United States, Turkey, Japan, Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation (just under 40%).

Employment and Economic Prosperity: Lone-parent families and low income

Low-income rates among children living in the lone parent economic families headed by women, after-tax LICOs (2011)

Low-income rates among children living in the lone parent economic families headed by women, after-tax LICOs (2011)

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 202-0802.

[Text version of the graphic Low-income rates among children living in the lone parent economic families headed by women, after-tax LICOs (2011)

The image is a line graph illustrating the incidence of low-income for children living in economic families (blue line), versus children in lone-parent families headed by women (red line) from 2002 to 2011. It shows that, while the incidence of low income has dropped significantly over time for children in lone-parent families headed by women (from nearly 45% in 2002 to less than 25% in 2011), children from these families are still much more likely to be low income compared to children from other families, whose rate of low income in 2011 was less than 10%. The graph also shows that the rate of low income for children in economic families has remained much more stable since 2002, at which time was just over 10%.

Employment and Economic Prosperity: Senior Women and Low Income

Low income rates, males and females over 65, after-tax LICOs

Low income rates, males and females over 65, after-tax LICOs

Source: ESDC, 2012

[Text version of the graphic Low income rates, males and females over 65, after-tax LICOs

The image is a line graph illustrating the rates of low income for the following groups from 2002 to 2011: all males, 65 and over; all females, 65 and over; unattached individual elderly males; and unattached individual elderly females.

It shows that unattached individual elderly females have the highest rate of low income (just over 20% in 2002 and just over 15% in 2011), followed by unattached individual elderly males (just over 15% in 2002 and just over 10% in 2011). It also shows that all females over the age of 65 have a higher rate of low income (over 5 % in 2011) than all males over 65 (less than 5% in 2011).

Employment and Economic Prosperity: Women and Part-time Work

Employment and Economic Prosperity: Women and Part-time Work

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, 2013.

[Text version of the graphic Employment and Economic Prosperity: Women and Part-time Work]
Employment and Economic Prosperity: Women and Part-time Work
Male Female
15 to 24 56.7% 77.6%
25 to 24 7.1% 24.4%
35 to 44 4.7% 24.2%
45 to 54 4.1% 23.6%
55 to 64 8.5% 31.9%
65+ 22.4% 52.0%

Employment and Economic Prosperity: Women and Caregiving

Women are more likely than men to be providing care, whether for a child or loved one.

Women are also more likely to experience work related repercussions due to their caregiving responsibilities, including missed time and reduction of hours.

Women spend more hours than men caregiving

Women spend more hours than men caregiving

† reference category
* significantly different from reference category (p < 0.05)
Source: Statistics Canada, General Social Survey, 2012.

[Text version of the graphic Women spend more hours than men caregiving]

The image is a bar graph illustrating the number of hours spent per week by men and women on caregiving. The graph shows that more female caregivers (more than 15%) than male caregivers (10%) are spent 20 hours or more per week caregiving. It also shows that fewer women (less than 25%) than men (nearly 30%) spent one hour or less per week on caregiving.

Leadership and Democratic Participation: Women in Executive Roles

Women's participation rate in business and finance increased more than 44% from 1987 (38.3%) to 2009 (55.2%).

In 2009, women comprised 37% of managers, up nearly 23% from 30.1% in 1979.

Women spend more hours than men caregiving

Source: Catalyst, 2015

[Text version of the graphic Women spend more hours than men caregiving]
Leadership and Democratic Participation: Women in Executive Roles
Canadian Women in Buisness Percentages
Canadian Labour Force 47.3%
Management Occupation 35.7%
Senior Officers 18.1%%
Board Directors 15.9%
Top Earners 6.9%
CEOs/Heads 4.9%

Leadership and Democratic Participation: Women in Board Governance

Source: Catalyst, 2015

Women's Representation on Canadian Stock Index Boards

Women's Representation on Canadian Stock Index Boards

Source: Catalyst, 2015

[Text version of the graphic Women's Representation on Canadian Stock Index Boards]

The image is a graphic of a circle. The top-centre of the circle is labeled “parity”. The bottom-left portion of the circle is shaded and labeled “women, 20.8%”. The right portion of the circle is not shaded and is labeled “men”.

Leadership and Democratic Participation: Canada below OECD avg. for women on boards

While Canada’s standing has improved since the last OECD analysis of women’s representation on corporate boards in 2009, we continue to remain below the OECD average.

Women are underrepresented on company boards

Share of women on the boards of listed companies, 2009

OECD data, 2012

[Text version of the graphic Share of women on the boards of listed companies, 2009]

The image is a bar graph illustrating the percentage of women on boards of listed companies in the following countries, in order of lowest share to greatest: Japan (less than 5%), Canada (just over 5%), Ireland, United Kingdom, OECD (about 10%), United States, Finland, France, Sweden and Norway (more than 35%).

Leadership and Democratic Participation: Women in Federal Government Appointments

As of June 30, 2015 women represented 34% of GIC appointments.

Sector % of Women Appointed
Total: 34%
Administrative Tribunals 37%
Agencies, Boards and Commissions 33%
Crown Corporations 33%
Deputy Ministers 42%
Diplomatic Appointments 28%
Judicial Appointments 34%

Leadership and Democratic Participation: Women in Senior Federal Government Positions

While women’s representation within the federal public service has increased significantly over the last 30 years, the same level of representation does not extend to executive ranks.

Though women represent 55% of public service employees, they represent 42% of senior government executives.

Figure 2: Proportion of Men and Women in the Federal Public Service (FPS) - Select Years, 1983 to 2013

Figure 2: Proportion of Men and Women in the Federal Public Service (FPS) - Select Years, 1983 to 2013

Treasury Board, 2013

[Text version of the graphic Figure 2: Proportion of Men and Women in the Federal Public Service (FPS) - Select Years, 1983 to 2013]
Proportion of Men and Women in the Federal Public Service (FPS) - Select Years, 1983 to 2013
Year Men Women
1983 58.2% 41.8%
1988 55.7% 44.3%
1993 52.9% 47.1%
1998 49.6% 50.4%
2003 46.7% 53.3%
2008 45.1% 54.9%
2013 45.0% 55.0%
Place Sex EX03 EX04 EX05 Total %
Core Public Service Male 492 118 48 658 58%
Female 354 85 32 471 42%
Total 846 203 80 1,129
Agencies Male 143 30 34 207 59%
Female 101 30 12 143 41%
Total 244 60 46 350
Total Public Service Male 635 148 82 865 58%
Female 455 115 44 614 42%
Total 1,090 263 126 1,479

Treasury Board, 2014

Leadership and Democratic Participation: Women’s Political Participation

Of the 338 MPs elected in the 2015 federal election, 88 are women – or 26% women – up only one percentage point from the last Parliament.

Seats Candidates Results
Elected 88 338 26% 26%
Candidates 472 1428 33.1% 33.1%

Political Representation of Women, Provincial

Political Representation of Women, Provincial

Equal Voice, 2014

The United Nations defines 30% as the minimum level of women’s representation required, in order for their voices to be heard.

[Text version of the graphic Political Representation of Women, Provincial]

On the y axis are percentages ranging from 0.00 to 100.00. On the x axis, the provinces and territories are listed in the following order (from left to right): Northwest Territories (NWT), Nunavut (NU), Yukon (YK), Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Prince Edward Island (PEI), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), Quebec (QC), Ontario (ON), Manitoba (MB), Saskatchewan (SK), Alberta (AB) and British Columbia (BC). Women are represented by a red bar, men by a blue. The data displayed is as follows (percentages are approximate):

The graph is credited to Equal Voice, 2014.

Leadership and Democratic Participation: Canada below OECD Average

Canada is slightly below the OECD average for women’s participation in federal parliaments.

Countries including Rwanda, Bolivia and Cuba rank well ahead of Canada in terms of women’s representation in federal government.

Share of women parliamentarians and legislated gender quotas (2012 and 2002)

Share of women parliamentarians and legislated gender quotas (2012 and 2002)

Source: Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) PARLINE (database), and IDEA Quota Project (database).

[Text version of the graphic Share of women parliamentarians and legislated gender quotas (2012 and 2002)]

The image is a bar graph illustrating the representation of women parliamentarians in percent by country in both 2012 and 2002. Countries are listed from highest representation in 2012 to lowest, in the following order: Sweden (45%), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Mexico, Spain, Germany, New Zealand, Slovenia, Portugal, Switzerland, Austria, France, OECD, Luxembourg, Canada (nearly 25%), Australia, Poland, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Italy, Greece, Israel, Estonia, Slovak Republic, United States, Korea, Ireland, Turkey, Chile, Japan and Hungary (nearly 10%).

Violence and Harassment: Rates of Violent Crime Not Decreasing at Same Rate for Women

The downward trend in rates of police-reported violent crimes is not the same for women and men. Between 2009–2013, violent crimes against men declined by 13%, but only by 7% for women.

Factors that may influence this disparity include:

Female Victims Male Victims
Form of Violence Percent change in rate 2009–2013 Percent change in rate 2009–2013 Average Change
Homicide -7.17 -23.13 -15.2
Attempted Murder -10.21 -20.70 -15.5
Physical Assault -13.61 -19.32 -16.5
Sexual Assault 2.24 7.82 5.0
Average -7.18 -13.00 -10.6

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Uniform Crime Reporting Trend Survey.

Violence and Harassment: Violence against women often not reported to police

Data on violence against women come from two main sources: police reported data (incidents that are reported to the police) and victimization survey data (conducted once every five years). We know from victimization survey data that women often do not report violence they experience to police.

For spousal violence, victims cite several reasons for this, including that they dealt with the situation in another way or felt that the incident was a personal matter.

Reporting rates of spousal violence to police, by sex of victim, Canada, 1993, 1999, 2004, and 2009

Reporting rates of spousal violence to police, by sex of victim, Canada, 1993, 1999, 2004, and 2009

2009 GSS data

[Text version of the graphic Reporting rates of spousal violence to police, by sex of victim, Canada, 1993, 1999, 2004, and 2009]

The image is a bar graph showing the reporting rates of spousal violence to police by female victims in Canada for the years 1993, 1999, 2004 and 2009. The graph shows that 1999 and 2004 had the highest reporting rates with just over 35%. The rate for 1993 was just under 30% and for 2009, approximately 30%.

Violence and Harassment: Rates of Sexual Violence in Canada largely unknown

A significant number of sexual assaults remain unreported.

The Attrition Pyramid - Reporting rates of spousal violence to police, by sex of victim, Canada, 1993, 1999, 2004, and 2009

[Text version of the graphic The Attrition Pyramid]

The image is labeled “The Attrition Pyramid”. It includes the following text: “H. Johnson, (2012). Limits of a criminal justice response: Trends in police and court processing of sexual assault. In Sheehy. E (Ed), Sexual Assault in Canada: Law, Legal Practice, and Women’s Activism. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, pp 633-654.

The image is a large triangle divided into seven sections. The bottom of the pyramid contains this text: “Actual incidence of sexual assault: Likely will never be known.” The section above this is labeled as follows: “460,000 reported to survey interviewers; 460,000 estimated sexual assaults in one year based on 2004 General Social Survey.” The third section contains this text: “15,200 reported to police”. It is labeled: “Less than 10% of sexual assaults reported on Victim Surveys were reported to police.” The next section contains this text: “13,200 recorded as crime.” It is labeled: “85% of police reported sexual assaults are recorded as a crime. The next section contains this text: “5,544 charges laid”. It is labeled: 50% of recorded sexual assault crimes result in the suspect being charged”. The next section contains this text: “2,824 prosecuted.” It is labeled: “Less than 50% of suspects were prosecuted.” The tip of the pyramid contains the text: “1,046 convicted”. It is labeled: “25% of those initially charged are convicted of sexual assault.

Violence and Harassment: Impacts of Spousal Violence

Impact of spousal violence for victims, by sex of victim, Canada, 2009

Impact of spousal violence for victims, by sex of victim, Canada, 2009

[Text version of the graphic Impact of spousal violence for victims, by sex of victim, Canada, 2009]

The image is a bar graph. It illustrates the impact of spousal violence on male and female victims in 2009. More than 40% of female victims were physically injured, compared to just under 20% of male victims. More than 15% of female victims received medical attention, compared to just under 15% of men. More than 10% of female victims were treated in hospital; data not reliable for male victims. More than 25% of female victims took time off daily activities, compared to just under 10% of men. More than 30% of female victims feared for their lives, compared to 5% of male victims.


Female victims of spousal violence are twice as likely as male victims to be physically injured, three times as likely to experience disruptions to their daily lives, such as missed days of work, and almost seven times as likely to fear for their life.

Documented physical and mental health impacts include lasting injuries, increased risk of cancer and heart disease, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide.

* Too unreliable to be published.

1. Includes only those who were physically injured.
Source: Statistics Canada, General Social Survey 2009. Excludes data from the Northwest Territories, Yukon and Nunavut.

Violence and Harassment: The Cost of Spousal Violence

Economic Costs of Spousal Violence in Canada (Justice, 2012)

Economic Costs of Spousal Violence in Canada (Justice, 2012)

[Text version of the graphic Economic Costs of Spousal Violence in Canada (Justice, 2012)]

The image is a pie chart illustrating the costs of spousal violence to victims (approximately 75%), the justice system (approximately 10%) and to third parties (approximately 15%).


The economic costs of spousal violence against women in Canada are estimated to be $4.8B annually.

Costs to victims

Costs to third parties

Costs to the justice system

Source: Zhang, Ting, Josh Hoddenbagh, Susan McDonald, and Katie Scrim. 2012. An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada,

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